In England, football is considered the national sport and is governed by the Football Association (FA), which generated a turnover of approximately 375 million on British pounds in 2018, mostly through media rights, sponsorship and licensing. The expenditure of FA are approximately 385 million British pounds that year, of which the majority consists of operating expenses and investments into the games. Football clubs also generate a large income from media rights, ticketing, merchandise, sponsorship and licensing.
In addition to this, the global betting industry has developed a significant relationship with football. The gross gambling yield (GGY) in Great Britain increased from roughly 8.4 billion British pounds in 2011 to approximately 14.4 billion British pounds in 2018. Bet 365, one of the industry giants, is the largest private employer in Stoke-on-Trent, with a workforce of more than 3,500. With the proliferation of betting companies and sports data analytic companies, mathematicians, data scientists and software engineers are in high demand.
The Hong Kong Jockey Club (HKJC), founded in 1884, is one of the oldest institutions in Hong Kong. It is a non-profit organization providing horse racing, sporting and betting entertainment in Hong Kong. It holds a government-granted monopoly in providing betting on horse racing, the Mark Six lottery and fixed odds betting on overseas football match. The organisation is the largest taxpayer in Hong Kong, as well as the largest community benefactor. They have been constantly hiring data scientists, data science manager with solid knowledge of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning for their football trading team.